陶瓷名家

景德镇艺术瓷厂美学研究室如何鉴赏瓷器以及为何价格如此之高

景德镇艺术瓷厂美学研究室如何鉴赏瓷器以及为何价格如此之高!

“艺术瓷厂”——景德镇乃至中国陶瓷行业的佼佼者。

作为景德镇十大瓷厂之一,“艺术瓷厂”主要生产釉上彩装饰用艺术瓷。 这是景德镇妇孺皆知的名字。 它是时代的产物,也是时代的象征。 至今仍影响着时代。 它诞生时,就像一个宝箱,收集了无数陶瓷秘闻,其中包括当时红店、作坊行业的精英。 古老的传统在这里得到融合、继承、发展和创新。 即使在停产重组后,“艺术瓷厂”的招牌依然闪闪发光,因为它对整个景德镇乃至陶瓷行业的影响力已经深入骨髓和血液。

那么从1958年9月成立到1998年停产改制,这40年来“艺术瓷厂”的情况又是怎样的呢? 我们走访那些与“艺术瓷厂”同呼吸共命运的人们,在他们的记忆中,我们穿越回到了“艺术瓷厂”的白金时代。

1. 出生的秘密

许焕文见证了“艺术瓷厂”的前世今生。 和他的出身一样,“艺瓷厂”可以说是出身名门望族,有着深厚的背景。

解放初期,景德镇的陶瓷业还很困难。 数据显示,大批陶瓷业主破产,各行各业萧条,大量工人失业; 陶瓷艺人流落各地,有的漂泊不定,有的回到家乡,有的甚至入山出家,到处求生。 没有出路; 幸存者也经营惨淡,难以维持。 曾经盛产无数精美瓷器的景德镇,跌入了历史的谷底。

这些艰辛,徐焕文都经历过。 其父徐永泉(名云泉)虽是近代著名陶瓷大师,但1912年就读于中国陶瓷专科学校,师从周小松; 后在江西省陶瓷学校任教,并担任画瓷讲师。 20世纪30年代在景德镇开设“三友瓷行”,专营人物瓷画。 但父亲早逝,徐焕文12岁入作坊学艺。1953年底进入景德镇市陶瓷美术生产合作社,师从王业廷之子王少平学习粉彩山水画。 。 从此,他从一名普通党员成长为生产队队长、生产队组长、艺术研究所副所长,与“艺术瓷厂”共同成长。

同年许焕文进入景德镇陶瓷艺术品生产合作社,组织派赵元到景德镇担任市委书记。 赵远在景德镇工作了十多年。 他和妻子韩光的到来,对于景德镇陶瓷行业,尤其​​是“艺术瓷厂”来说具有重要意义。

德化陶瓷名家_陶瓷名家_景德镇陶瓷名家/

景德镇陶瓷艺术品生产合作社成立于1952年,成立之初,只有画画,只有十几二十人。 随后几年,按照“指示精神”和产业转型不断扩大,合并了景德镇第一、第三、第四工艺合作社。 东风瓷厂绘画部、新彩部先后更名为“景德镇市陶瓷艺术合作社厂”、“景德镇市陶瓷工艺瓷厂”。 1958年9月24日,景德镇市政府发文,景德镇陶瓷工艺瓷厂和出口瓷画加工厂共同组建“艺术瓷厂”。 三天后,成立大会在六小操场上召开。 整个瓷厂由景德镇工匠和作坊从业人员组成。 此外,后来又从建国瓷厂选拔了一批人才,并通过学徒方式选拔了一批新一代。 瓷厂成立时,员工人数达到5138人。

建国初期为了发展经济,在景德镇兴建了许多陶瓷厂,如:建国瓷厂、人民瓷厂、艺术瓷厂、雕塑瓷厂、伟民瓷厂等。 、宇宙瓷厂、光明瓷厂、红星瓷厂、东风瓷厂、红旗瓷厂、精瓷厂等大型瓷厂及原料厂、陶瓷机械厂、陶瓷化工厂等配套企业。这些企业有自己的大集团和小集团。 作为地方国营瓷厂,很多瓷厂的设立都带有官方色彩,与体制紧密相连。 当时,这样的陶瓷工厂几乎覆盖了景德镇这座城市的“核心”。 艺术、建国、人民、东风瓷厂等著名瓷厂的工厂和销售处都位于市中心,距离行政中心最近,毗邻繁华的商业区。

景德镇陶瓷名家_陶瓷名家_德化陶瓷名家/

在这些瓷厂中,以“艺术瓷厂”最具代表性。 韩光兼任市委常委、宣传部长时,担任艺术瓷厂党委书记。 当时,“艺术瓷厂”的建设涉及全市、整个陶瓷行业的努力。 把它打造成样板厂,它的每一个“动作”都将成为景德镇陶瓷行业的标杆。 工厂全体员工分散在联社北路、珠山中路、原群英堂蔡家街、中华南路路口(现新月广场附近)、珠山东路、薛家坞、姜家坞在外地工作,瓷厂的规模可想而知。 令人惊叹的不仅是瓷厂的规模,还有大家齐心协力的精神。 在联合北路建设占地12亩的宿舍时,仅用了14天就建起了三层楼房。 联合北路艺术瓷厂的彩绘大楼共有八层。 毫不夸张地说,它是全市和陶瓷行业共同努力建成的。 一楼为包装车间及展厅,二楼为艺术研究院。 三至六楼是各种作坊,七、八楼是烤花作坊。 画楼完全现代化,甚至还有直达电梯。 艺术瓷厂艺术研究室瓷器作品鉴赏交流(guwan0628)景德镇徐先生。

景德镇陶瓷名家_德化陶瓷名家_陶瓷名家/

1966年文革初期,省革委会提出瓷业精简人员1万人的决定。 景德镇适应后,将“陶瓷画合作厂”(即后来的新光瓷厂)和曙光瓷厂从“艺术瓷厂”景德镇建设公司中分离出来,并把一个成型车间划给了宇宙瓷厂。 整个工厂只剩下两千人了。 许焕文最初的好日子即将结束,“文化大革命”开始了。 但无论规模如何变化,社会如何变迁,“艺术瓷厂”诞生之初就是一个“典型”。

2. 瓷器业的巅峰就在这座城市

作为样板打造的“艺术瓷厂”绝对不是一场空秀。 其“软实力”也是首屈一指的。 成立之初,拥有众多技艺独特、工艺顶尖的陶瓷艺术家,拥有最强的技术力量。

全厂1/5138的徐焕文清楚地记得:“1960年到1966年这段时间是鼎盛时期,那时候老艺术家都很年轻,40、50岁,精力充沛,大家都非常强大。” 除了主人。 王少平,因为或多或少合作过,印象最深的就是毕元明、张世宝、吴康、王小凡、叶振甲、赵慧敏、常兆新、涂菊青等前辈和同事。

景德镇陶瓷名家_陶瓷名家_德化陶瓷名家/

为了鼓励陶瓷艺术家,认可他们的成就,表彰他们的贡献,景德镇于1959年和1961年两批向35位具有绝技的艺术家授予“陶瓷艺术家”荣誉称号,并给予物质奖励。 同时,还授予了一批陶瓷设计师、设计师称号。 这就是许焕文记忆中的“三级职称评审”。 艺术瓷厂近十几人荣获“景德镇陶瓷艺术家”称号。 其后人、现为著名陶瓷评论家曹新民曾做过统计:1959年以后评价的5批55名景德镇陶瓷艺术家中,有18人来自“艺术瓷厂”。

“艺瓷厂”知名陶瓷艺术家不完全名单包括:毕元明、张世宝、吴康、王小凡、叶振甲、赵慧敏、常兆新、涂菊青、潘文富、张良、张文超、王龙福、田惠迪、翟潇湘、申生生、许焕文、邹夫人、余文祥、叶冬青、陈贤水、周祥福、叶振佳、常兆新、邹国军、王昆荣、吴元庆、王一亭、王鹤亭……很多人物只能在历史和瓷器上找到。 读书,真可谓“家家捧景山玉,人人捧灵蛇珠”,各有绝活。

陶瓷名家_景德镇陶瓷名家_德化陶瓷名家/

那些留存历史的人物的技艺到底有多神奇? 郭沫若的《游景德镇》诗中给出了答案。 这首广为流传的七韵诗是郭沫若1965年参观“艺术瓷厂”后即兴创作的。 据曹新民考证,郭沫若在写这首诗时写道:“中国素有瓷器之国,瓷器业的巅峰已至,自宋代以来,声誉已失中外,珍品比镜更名贵,画比镜更漂亮。” “景观”二字是碧素……”在《郭沫若游记诗选》出版时,为了说明景德镇的独特、景德镇陶瓷的特色和“青胜于蓝”的期盼,最后修改为:“中国香豪瓷” 在国内,瓷业的巅峰是京都,自宋以来,名声相传,华外皆失,珍品多于牌坊,明胜于镜,画胜于观景,人物胜于苏。技术革新不断进步,先行者不断开拓。后者被几个日本人超越,抢占先机。万邦瓷器市场,年收入7000万美元,比赤县强大十倍,图案、形式要新颖,供需要有竞争力,要超越国际水平,不能犹豫发扬我们的荣耀。”

抛开诗中所描述的出口收入,单看几位陶瓷艺术家的个人经历,我们就可以发现“艺术瓷厂”在艺术纪念瓷和国礼瓷方面取得了巨大的成就。 早在1958年,为庆祝中华人民共和国成立十周年,景德镇就成立了一个小组,为人民大会堂江西厅绘制和陈列瓷器。 这个任务交给了艺术瓷厂和陶瓷研究所。 徐焕文所绘的5尺2瓷板《英雄城南昌》与王锡良的《井冈山》、胡先亚的《瑞金》、于文祥的《安源》、其他瓷板画。 更何况,1965年,张世宝曾五次为故宫博物院临摹清宫残瓷藏品; 1972年,他将毕元明创作的礼品瓷命名为“毕元明”,并以国家的名义赠送给美国总统理查德·尼克松……

如今,谈起昔日的“十大瓷厂”,人们总是有很多争论。 有些人习惯按成立时间排名; 有些人习惯按生产规模排名; 有些人习惯以陶瓷的外汇收入来排名……每当遇到这样的论资排辈的时候,“艺术瓷厂”总是最不尴尬的一个,因为它是产品获奖最多、最富有的企业全国陶瓷行业品种、门类最全、单件兑换率最高。

3、分工的力量

陶瓷行业并不像看上去那么简单。 它既是劳动密集型产业,又是智力密集型产业。 追溯到上世纪的景德镇,陶瓷行业依然秉承着传统的精细工艺和“七十二方方成器”。 但其管理理念并没有过时。 至少“艺术瓷厂”往往是“第一个吃螃蟹的”。

作为地方国营瓷厂,政府规定各企业生产的产品,各企业各司其职。 1959年,景德镇市政府在《关于陶瓷企业产品分工特点的决定》中,对各大瓷厂的生产类型进行了划分。 通俗的说法是:艺术瓷厂生产艺术瓷,雕塑瓷厂生产雕塑瓷,光明瓷厂生产青花精美瓷器,建国瓷厂生产彩釉瓷,人民瓷厂生产瓷器。生产青花梧桐餐具……自从“艺术瓷厂”采取釉上彩装饰分工后,根据这份文件,“艺术瓷厂”开始展示艺术瓷,以粉彩工艺瓷为主要产品。

几乎在分工确定的同年年底,“艺术瓷厂”聚集了30多名陶瓷艺术家,成立了景德镇第一个“美学研究室”。 后来技术人员增多,1963年升格为艺术研究所。 该机构与特种工艺研究所、陶瓷壁画研究所一起,是被誉为“艺术瓷厂”的新产品开发研究机构,是全厂的智库和心脏。 按照工艺流程,整个工厂还分为成型、烘烤、喷漆等生产车间。 事实上,这种组织设置更像是传统作坊的标准化或放大版。 它非常灵活。 既保留了陈设艺术瓷、粉彩工艺瓷等主打产品的优点,又不失工厂在古色、喷绘瓷方面的专业技术。 色彩、金色、拉丝花、综合装饰、精美青花等色彩的技术实力,为打造“全能型”陶瓷工厂奠定了基础。

1990年出版的《瓷国明珠》宣传册记载,“艺术瓷厂”的生产拥有先进的原料精炼、机压、离心灌浆设备; 精湛的手工绘制和磨刀,以及独特的刀雕。 、镂空、精美雕刻、镶嵌等; 成龙配套工线的工艺,粉嫩色调的丝网印刷,精湛的喷漆工艺处理,精美的彩色包装,隧道油窑烧制,电子微电脑……整个工厂的整个生产流程一流,符合规范。烤花用的电炉。

全厂产品有11种花色、1750个花色品种。 生产的产品有:以粉彩为主的中薄胎瓷、瓶、罐、碗、凉墩、瓷盘、瓷盘、壁画等。 、皮灯、方形复合、异形、西洋陶瓷等,以及洋金、贴花餐具、茶具、酒具及青花釉陈设瓷、日用瓷、多彩精美瓷及各系列是一种综合性装饰瓷。 可以说品种繁多,规格齐全,造型新颖,质地洁白,高、中、低档都有,小到几万个两米多高的花瓶,大到百多米长的巨幅壁画,大到单个小如手指、薄如蝉翼的薄胎瓷器,装饰题材丰富,有花鸟、虫草,赋予花鸟神韵。 有飞禽走兽,在山林中咆哮,在天空中争斗; 这里有美丽的山川,再现了大自然的婆娑色彩; 那里有古老的人物,表情既华丽又动人; 其纹饰图案,雕琢繁密,吉祥如意……“春晓秋冬之变,尽显山水之灵气”、“显神佛之相,述圣贤之美”。 《和名媛》、《描写奇花异草,天香奇花,绘彩鸟羽国色》。

这种细致的分工与配合,从瓷厂成立之初就可见一斑。 1962年,“艺术瓷厂”接到创作“瓷都八景”的任务:荷塘破晓、云岩探宝、东郊新秋、长江瓷舫、高大上竹山、公园揽胜、老城春色、临江高阁。 》本次人物由艺术研究室分工完成,徐焕文、邹国军、王云泉、陈耀兴、邓必钊为主创,王少平、施宁旺填瓷。赵惠民傅耀生作字,毕渊明作诗题碑。

在明确的分工下,每个瓷厂都有自己的品牌。 艺术瓷厂的品牌最引人注目——“景德镇牌”和“福寿牌”,一个以城市命名,一个寓意福祉吉祥。 由于供不应求,连买瓷器都得走后门。

陶瓷名家_德化陶瓷名家_景德镇陶瓷名家/

4、最佳时机

“一千个人眼里就有一千个哈姆雷特。” 在不同的人眼中,“艺术瓷厂”最辉煌的时代也不同。 有人说,这是它成立的开始;有人说,这是它成立的开始。 有人说那是20世纪70年代;有人说那是20世纪70年代。 有人说是1980年到1990年; 有些人认为它一直处于最好的时代。

1986年退休后,许焕文继续在工厂里画画了八年,直到最后一张画桌消失。 他忘不了当初创业的热情,也忘不了改革带来的繁荣。 因此,在他眼里,艺术瓷厂有两个白金年,一个是1960年至1966年,另一个是1980年至1990年。

与许焕文不同的是,曹新民、张茂生、徐星都有上山下乡的经历,并且都在20世纪70年代初进入艺术瓷厂。 在那个时代进入瓷厂被认为是一种荣誉和幸运。 当时瓷厂是景德镇最好的单位,更何况还是著名的艺术瓷厂。 且不说厂里生活设施齐全,待遇优越,单看学习机会,机会就比别人多。

然而,三个人眼中的白金岁月却截然不同。

1971年入厂、学习烤花的著名陶瓷评论家曹新民说:“白金时代是1985年到1995年,当时很多瓷厂都停工了,艺术瓷厂还在继续生产。”在此期间,产生了许多令人瞩目的产品,许多国家重大事件紧密相连,政治影响、社会效应、经济效益深远。

1972年进厂学习雕塑。 著名陶瓷雕塑家张茂生说:“1976年至1982年是最辉煌的时期,刚成立时还处于探索阶段,这个时期含金量最高,无论是老艺术家还是新一代都继承了这一时期。” ……”

1975年进厂学习制瓷、现任艺术瓷厂副厂长、艺术研究所所长的徐星说:“从1958年建厂到1999年停产, 1998年,已经辉煌了40年,期间虽然经历了一些波折,但它是景德镇艺术家的摇篮,培养了一大批至今仍在影响时代的艺术家。

或许,“拿奖变软”的历史最能说明什么是瓷厂的白金时代。

1980年“福寿牌”粉彩瓷荣获国家金奖; 1983年“景德镇牌”薄胎瓷荣获国家银质奖; 1989年,荣获北京国际博览会金奖; 1986年,“景德镇牌”瓷盘画荣获全国工艺美术百花奖“金杯奖”; 1988年,“福寿牌”古墨彩瓶荣获全国工艺美术百花奖“银杯奖”; 1990年再次荣获“金杯奖”; 1989年,粉彩瓷、薄胎瓷、金斗坊龙凤贴花产品分别荣获全国出口瓷大赛金奖、银奖……

这些都是《瓷国明珠》中的记载。 据介绍,该厂还有38个产品荣获部、省优等称号。 名牌优势使工厂的产品远销120多个国家和地区。 不少精品被选为国礼瓷,不少艺术品被世人珍藏。

也是在1988年,为了应对激烈的市场竞争,艺术瓷厂在管理体制、用工制度、分配制度等方面进行了大胆的改革。 当年实现利润105万元,扭转颓势,重回“百万富翁”行列。

名利双收当然是最好的时机。

5、瓷厂夫妻团队

如果事业和爱情都能双丰收,无论何时何地,都是最好的时光。 这句话完全是潘文甫和田惠地的真实写照。 他们是同班同学,进入同一家工厂学习陶瓷。 这种夫妻和声载歌载舞的情景,不仅在艺术瓷厂的历史上留下了光辉的印记,也成为整个陶瓷行业的一段佳话。

潘文富和田慧迪都是1938年出生的人,巧合的是,他们的家庭背景也很相似。 潘文富出生于景德镇,成长于陶瓷艺术世家。 其叔父潘桃玉是清末民初著名粉彩瓷画家。 其父潘永兵是景德镇第一批陶瓷艺术家之一。 师从著名陶瓷艺术家张志堂,专攻粉彩画。 田慧迪出生于浙江上虞的一个书香世家。 她的父亲田轩与大画家吴昌硕关系密切。 家里收藏的书籍、字画激发了她从小对艺术的兴趣。 1958年,两人同时考入景德镇陶瓷学院美术系,成为第一届学生。 潘文福得益于名师张志堂的培养,好学上进。 大学毕业后,他进入艺瓷厂美学研究所。 求学期间,田惠地深受青花名师聂兴胜绘画技艺的影响。 他留在学校教了两年青花专业课程,随后追随爱人的脚步,被调到景德镇艺术瓷厂实验组,负责造型设计和釉下装饰设计。

世界很大,世界很广阔。 两人兴趣广泛,但想法却很简单,潜心研究陶瓷工艺。 大多数时候,他们把车间当作自己的家。 他们在工厂或成型车间里吃住。 他们住的是最简单的窑炉,烧的是最传统的木窑。 当他们失败时,他们互相鼓励并再次尝试。

这种不经意的乐观和简单的坚持很快就会带来成果。 潘文福成功创作高温琉璃粉彩,开辟了新的陶瓷装饰语言; 田惠地还创造性地用稀土原料配制材料,研制出稀土彩色精美瓷器,色泽鲜艳,纹饰色彩丰富多样。

在外人看来,这对夫妻似乎总是厌倦了在一起。 当时,他们都专注于研究釉色、原料、造型和新技术。 但他们得出的结论和绘画方向却截然不同且相互独立。

潘文富时而刚烈,时而优雅。 擅长高温色釉装饰。 他有扎实的传统粉彩瓷画功底,擅长表现山水、人物、花鸟。 他的作品既体现了材质的自然美,又具有工笔瓷画的趣味。 他能熟练掌握7大类色釉30余种颜色的表现,并将其运用到陶瓷装饰中。

田慧迪充满女性气质,优雅大方。 擅长青花瓷画、釉彩综合装饰。 题材多为花卉、水果、山水。 她的作品构图精巧,布局平和自然,色彩清雅淡雅,轻松悦目,注重材质的优美运用。

两人似乎在争夺奖品。 1983年,经有关部门鉴定,潘文福创制的粉红、淡绿、淡蓝、淡黄七彩精美釉为国内首创,荣获江西省科技成果二等奖、江西省科技成果三等奖。轻工业部科技进步奖。 代表作《金桂林》藏梅瓶300件,参加在上海举办的第二届全国陶瓷艺术展。 1978年获景德镇陶瓷艺术大赛一等奖,并被景德镇陶瓷博物馆收藏。 天惠地也不甘落后。 主要作品《青釉白瓷》、《七彩皮灯三百件》荣获第四届全国工艺美术创作设计大赛一等奖和首届全国稀土“神农杯”特等奖。 获工信部优秀新产品“金龙奖”及多项省市奖。

别以为这样的夫妻是“工作狂”。 他们热爱旅行,享受生活。 他们在许多名山大川留下了足迹。 即使放权的三年里,两人依然淡然,过着应有的生活,努力活在当下,寻找生活的乐趣。 他们是恋人,也是知己。

回忆往事,最让田惠娣感到自豪的,不是潘文福是艺术瓷厂厂长,她是特种工艺研究所副所长,而是两个人努力的成果能够投入到工作中。生产,给工厂带来很大的效益。 巨大的好处。

事实上,这对夫妻团队的努力也是艺术瓷厂许多“双收入”家庭的缩影。

6.父子上阵

Although it is built according to the modern ceramic factory, the “Art Porcelain Factory” has always retained the respect for the tradition of apprenticeship and learning skills. No matter who you are or what type of work, you must apprentice and learn the craft under the leadership of the master. The average apprenticeship lasts for three years, and only after completing the course can you be promoted and receive a salary increase.

As the saying goes: “Brothers fight tigers, and father and son fight in battle.” Due to the special nature of the times, the factory not only selects qualified apprentices from outside, but also allows students to teach their skills to their children. “Bi Hu” Bi Yuanming and his daughter Bi Defang, “Snow King” Yu Wenxiang and his daughter Yu Huiguang, “Grand Master of Flower Brushing” Chen Xianshui and his son Chen Xiaoliang, and Wang Longfu and his daughter Wang Shuning were all taught their skills by their fathers.

Among these “father and son soldiers”, there are also some who are independent and find new ways, Wu Jinhua is one of them.

景德镇陶瓷名家_陶瓷名家_德化陶瓷名家/

His father, Wu Kang, also known as Ji Ming, learned to paint portraits on porcelain from Deng Bizhao at the age of 13. At the age of 16, he successfully produced a colored porcelain plate portrait for the first time. During his long artistic career, Wu Kang learned the skills of famous ceramic artists such as Wang Qi recently and the painting styles of famous Chinese and foreign painters from ancient and modern times. The portraits he painted are vivid and lifelike. In 1959, he was awarded the title of “Ceramic Artist” by the Jingdezhen Municipal Party Committee and Government . Wu Kang was also a veteran of the Art Porcelain Factory. He had a deep affection for the Art Porcelain Factory. When he first established the Ceramics Research Institute, he refused the invitation to stay in the porcelain factory as a worker. Wu Jinhua often said: “I am a child who grew up standing on the shoulders of giants.” This is not only because he learned ceramic painting from his father since childhood, but also refers to the days when he worked at the Art Institute of Art Porcelain Factory.

陶瓷名家_景德镇陶瓷名家_德化陶瓷名家/

Wu Kang self-portrait

He realized from an early age that there was a group of extraordinary people here. He often lingers in the more than 100-square-meter hall on the first floor of the painted building, because this is the studio of old artists, just like a school. Each person has a table and three tables are arranged in each row. The old artists are very punctual and go to work. Time will definitely see them working hard. In the rigorous atmosphere, you will suddenly hear Teacher Bi Yuanming reciting poems and writing poems loudly, and a kind of literati’s pride arises spontaneously. Perhaps because of this influence from childhood, he did not inherit the legacy of his father’s ceramic portrait painting. Instead, he sought advice from the old masters as a nephew and nephew, pooling their strengths and finally determining his own style. He has always believed: “The Art Porcelain Factory is the best school to cultivate talents. There are the most famous and powerful artists here.”

德化陶瓷名家_景德镇陶瓷名家_陶瓷名家/

The Art Porcelain Factory forged him, and “alien” like him also brought a new wind to the factory. In the late 1980s, there were ministries and provincial offices in Jingdezhen. They made a lot of innovations, and the government also supported them. At this time, the art porcelain factory was also confused, so young people like Wu Jinhua, after studying in the factory, worked hard to get into specialized ceramics colleges. After studying in the colleges, they returned to the porcelain factory with new ideas, becoming a “connector between the past and the future”. “generation.

7. Orders and Trade Fairs

Going back to Guo Moruo’s poem, the poem once described: “…later came from the East to seize the Wanbang porcelain market. The annual income is 70 million US dollars, which is ten times more powerful than Chi County. The patterns and forms are novel, and the supply and demand are competing. International level We should transcend and carry forward our brilliance without lingering.” These are not exaggerations. Statistics show that from 1963 to 1978, the country’s annual foreign exchange reserves ranged from US$100 million to US$180 million, and Jingdezhen porcelain earned the country more than US$30 million in foreign exchange every year. Jingdezhen porcelain has become a major commodity in the world’s ceramic trade and a hot commodity in the domestic market. Jingdezhen has become the world’s ceramic production factory.

So through what channels are Jingdezhen ceramics, especially the porcelain from the Art Porcelain Factory, sold, thus creating the myth of wealth and shortage of ceramics.

Order-based production was once the main mode of operation for art porcelain factories. Every year, the city’s Jingdezhen Ceramic Sales Company, China Arts and Crafts Import and Export Corporation, and import and export companies from other provinces and cities order porcelain in advance. Most of the porcelain earns foreign exchange through export, and some are sold through friendship stores.

The art porcelain factory has a clear division of labor in production and sales. Artists and workers are only responsible for manufacturing, not sales or money; the sales department is responsible for communicating with the import and export department, friendship stores and other units to understand market information. The advantage of such direct order production is that it can be targeted during production and save production resources and manpower. In the mid-1990s, the Art Porcelain Factory implemented a foreign trade export agency system. The goals of the factory management policy at that time were to improve contracting and increase efficiency, strive to expand the international market, and consolidate the domestic market. Further strengthen quality awareness and put product quality first; give full play to the absolute advantages of technical strength and strive to develop an export-oriented economy.

In the “Art Porcelain Factory”, situations often occur, such as a certain exhibition or competition work setting the highest price for a single piece; a certain company paid tens of thousands of yuan in advance for a set of porcelain; a certain trade fair brought a product to the factory. Come for huge orders.

At the first Jingdezhen Ceramics Festival, the factory’s “Six Cranes and Spring” two thousand porcelain vases created by Wang Longfu and Zhai Xiaoxiang were hand-shaped and sharp. The entire creation took three months and was extremely difficult. After this work won an award at the Ceramics Festival, it was collected by an overseas Chinese in Indonesia for 120,000 yuan on the spot.

In 1989, the factory produced a set of 244 pieces of royal antique porcelain for Hong Kong Zhongyi Company, with a set price exceeding NT$50,000. At that time, the factory produced more than 500 pieces, and after taking away 244 pieces, the rest were stored in the warehouse and gradually forgotten. It was not until the fiberboard rotted in the warehouse that these porcelains were seen again. After Cao Xinmin checked the facts, he wrote an article about “The imperial wedding porcelain of Emperor Tongzhi of the Qing Dynasty is reproduced in the scene”, and was certified by Mr. Geng Baochang of the Palace Museum in Beijing. The value of this set of porcelain immediately doubled, creating “a good piece of news for porcelain”. The factory has brought about the miracle of bringing hundreds of thousands of benefits.”

Tian Huidi made two exquisite leather lamps with rare earth colors. One remained in the factory, and the other was bought by a Japanese couple for 150,000 yuan. In 1966, she and Chen Xianshui collaborated on a set of coffee sets, which she styled and Chen Xianshui painted. At that time, high-end daily-use porcelain for this special product was scarce. The two were ordered to take this new product to a trade fair in Guangzhou, and there was immediately a lot of interest. Few sellers place orders. In the end, because mass production was too difficult, the factory had to give up the order.

Wu Jinhua’s masterpiece “Unparalleled Mask Bowl” was auctioned for US$1 million. This unique art treasure, unprecedented in the history of contemporary ceramic craftsmanship, was created at the Art Porcelain Factory.

……

8. Education and porcelain factories

Because of its strong financial support, the Art Porcelain Factory is particularly independent. It has its own canteen, hospital, bathhouse, auditorium, nursery, nursing room, and its own school, of which the school is the place where the porcelain factory invests the most. Its children’s school, also known as Wuqi Middle School, in addition to basic courses, specially invited ceramic experts from the factory to teach; its 721 University was the predecessor of Jingdezhen Ceramic Workers University.

The most important thing is that since its establishment, the Art Porcelain Factory has had many famous masters, descendants of aristocratic families and newcomers in the porcelain garden. It is like a nurturing mother body, cultivating various talents related to ceramic art. In 1990, the factory had 410 people with intermediate and senior professional titles. It is one of the famous key production and export bases of artistic ceramics in China and has won the reputation of “Pearl of the Porcelain Country” at home and abroad.

Even during the Cultural Revolution, the Art Porcelain Factory survived the difficulties by producing “Jinggangshan” brand porcelain radio boxes. Why did it not escape the wave of market economy later? Is it the inertia created by the fixed production and sales model for many years? Is it the backlog of debts accumulated by friendship stores in various places? Or is it internally exhausted… We don’t know. Even though I felt very uncomfortable inside, I couldn’t do anything about it.

We cannot count all those who have worked in art porcelain factories, but these people and their careers have influenced the entire ceramics industry to this day. These are the greatest wealth left by the Art Porcelain Factory to Jingdezhen and the world.